Allow acid stain to react with the concrete floor for at least 6 hours. Clean residue and pour water on the floor to approximate the final color. If darker color is desired, apply a second coat. Clean residue from floor with degreaser and neutralizer solution using an acid brush.
The acid solution is liberally flushed over the concrete and a bubbling action should be evident. The solution should be left in contact with the concrete for about 15 minutes, after which the surface should be hosed off, or liberally flushed using clean, fresh water.
Scrub the acid solution: Once the solution is applied, lightly scrub it into the concrete with a push broom or long handled scrub brush. This helps to create a uniform etch of the concrete. Let the solution sit from 2 – 15 minutes while it continues to fizz and bubble.
The instructions with most acid stains (as well as concrete sealers and coatings) say to wait at least 28 days after pouring a slab before finishing it, with some recommending as long as 60 days.
Over time, it can destroy concrete as the acid weakens its structure. This will cause scaling, pitting, peeling, and cracking. If the acid wash gets into the soil, it will evaporate on the surface but remain beneath the surface (just like it does with concrete).
Allow to stand for 15 minutes, occasionally working into the concrete with a stiff-bristled yard broom. Bubbling at the water/concrete interface should be evident.
Any concrete that is not properly neutralized will begin decomposing immediately. It may take time for the damage to reach the surface where you can see it, but it is happening and is usually irrepairable.
Once that stain chemically reacts for a minimum of four to six hours—typically, you'll leave an acid stain overnight—it brings salts to the surface. All of these salts are like a powdery residue.
If the concrete dries during the acid washing process, it should be wet again before applying acid to the surface. areas should be missed, ensuring that the reaction is visible over the entire surface. Avoid walking on areas that have been worked already.
This will help the sealer to penetrate and result in a superior bond between the sealer and the surface. Sealing after acid washing provides long lasting durability and enhances or deepens the colour of your blocks, it is important to seal the acid washed area as it offers excellent protection against staining.
When cleaning with basic pH chemicals such as sodium hypochlorite, you remove dirt, mold, and algae from surfaces easily, but do not get the brightening effects acidic pH chemicals, such as muriatic acid, provide. Muriatic acid can provide that bright white look that new concrete often has.
Muriatic acid is strong enough to etch concrete, but it can also cause severe injury and/or damage property when used improperly. Always wear protective clothing, rubber gloves, boots and goggles or a face shield when handling acid. Avoid breathing acid vapors.
Brush or spray on a 1:10 diluted mix of acid in water onto the surface, allow it to sit for up to 10 minutes, but no longer, then spray it with a solution of 1 cup ammonia in a gallon of water to neutralize the acid. Allow the surface to dry completely before applying paint or other treatments.
concrete can deteriorate. Freezing of trapped water, the effects of sea water, even certain bacteria and fungi can damage it. Particularly damaging to concrete are acids.
Though new concrete may not always require a second coat of acid stain, older concrete does require two coats of stain for complete coverage. For a more diffuse look, spray the stain onto the surface without brushing.
From experience, Nitric Acid will happily react with concrete producing NOx. Cannot give the exact reaction and the generated heat, so will leave it to others to answer. There is a thing called chlorine trifluoride which is able to ignite sand and concrete.
In contrast, glycolic acid-based concrete remover formulations are: More efficient at penetrating and loosening concrete. More highly effective calcium-complexing agents. Significantly less corrosive than hydrochloric acid-based removers on most surfaces.
Start by mixing a solution of 1 part muriatic acid to 10 parts water in a bucket or spray bottle, then soak the stained area. Wait about 10 minutes and then spray the area with a solution of 1 cup of ammonia to 1 gallon of water to neutralize and clean the acid.
To help prevent this, it's a good idea to slightly dampen the surface of the concrete before applying the acid stain. This will help ensure that the stain has enough moisture to react properly with the concrete.
Acid staining is a chemical reaction that permanently changes the color of the concrete surface. If you want to stain old concrete, using a true acid stain is always the best option.
Fresh concrete is always much darker than when it is fully cured and dry. Even uncolored concrete. Wait at least 7 to 10 days until the new concrete has hardened and dried. If the concrete is on a wet subgrade or there's underground water, it may stay dark for as long as it's wet.
A white haze, white streaks or white, powdery dust on the surface after drying is caused by waiting too long before rinsing or by inadequate rinsing. The white powder is a combination of cement particles released from the surface and a precipitate byproduct of the etching reaction, insoluble calcium phosphate.
Adding too much muriatic acid can drop your pH levels too low. Low pH can cause eye irritation and skin rashes. It can also erode metals like pool ladders, railings, nuts and bolts, and other pool equipment.
If your pH reading is above 7.8 and you have a 15,000-gallon pool, start by adding 1 quart (1/4 gallon) of muriatic acid. Then after letting the acid circulate for one hour, retest your levels. If you have a smaller pool, start by adding one cup of muriatic acid at a time. Wait for one hour, then add more as needed.
If you're diluting your muriatic acid further, always pour the acid into water rather than vice-versa. Adding water to acid can cause a chemical reaction that makes the liquid bubble and spray in multiple directions, potentially causing injury if it lands on skin or eyes.